In this fun and easy geology science demonstration, we’re going to explore and investigate groundwater.
  • Two large glass flower vases (plastic two liter soda bottles with the top cut off will work also)
  • Pitchers for pouring water
  • Water
  • Gravel or pebbles
  • Sand


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  1. In each of the glass containers, layer sand and gravel switching back and forth until they’re around 3/4 of the way full. This will produce an aquifer.
  2. An aquifer is the layers of rock, soil and sand which contain water.
  3. Little by little pour water into one of the containers. Observe how the water is working its way through the small openings as it goes down.
  4. In the first container, continue pouring until it is full and above the top layer of sand or gravel.
  5. After that, gradually pour water into the second container, ceasing about an inch BELOW the top of the aquifer. The level of the water in the second container is the water table. Below that, the aquifer is saturated. The glass of the container in this demonstration serves as impermeable rock.
  6. Demonstrate what would happen if it were to rain by very slowly introducing a little more water to the second container. Observe and take note of your observations. This illustrates the recharging of the groundwater.
  7. Keep your containers for several weeks so that you can see that in the first one, there was never any room for more water, but in the second, as the ground soaked up more of the water and as time passed, we were able to put in a little bit more water each time provided that we never filled it higher than the surface of the aquifer.


I hope you enjoyed this super quick tutorial and had fun investigating and understanding groundwater. Groundwater plays an important role in natural ecosystems, in the water cycle, and in land formations on Earth. Groundwater is stored in aquifers underground, which are underground water reservoirs. Like giant rock sponges underground, these are often made of limestone and take thousands or millions of years to fill.

Underground Adventures: Fun Facts About Groundwater


  1. Groundwater is the water that fills spaces in the soil and rocks beneath the Earth's surface.

  2. Did you know that groundwater can be found in underground lakes, rivers, and even hidden underground reservoirs?

  3. Groundwater plays a vital role in providing water for drinking, agriculture, and sustaining ecosystems.

  4. Have you ever wondered how long groundwater has been underground? Some groundwater can be thousands of years old!

  5. Groundwater can be accessed through wells, which are holes dug deep into the ground to reach the water below.

  6. Aquifers are underground layers of rock or sediment that hold and transmit water. They are like natural storage tanks for groundwater!

  7. Groundwater can be naturally filtered as it passes through layers of soil and rocks, making it cleaner and fresher than surface water.

  8. Fun fact: Did you know that some animals, like desert kangaroo rats, get their water solely from the moisture in their food and do not need to drink water directly?

  9. Groundwater levels can change over time, depending on factors like rainfall, climate, and human water use. It's important to conserve water to maintain healthy groundwater supplies.

  10. Exploring and protecting groundwater is a fascinating way to learn about the Earth's hidden water systems and the importance of water conservation.

Remember, groundwater is not just below our feet; it's a valuable resource that connects us to the hidden wonders of the Earth!

Pro tip: Use this activity to create some excitement around discussions or lessons about geology, aquifers, groundwater, and more!
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  1. What is groundwater?

a) Water found on the Earth's surface, such as in rivers and lakes b) Water that fills spaces beneath the Earth's surface in soil and rocks c) Water found in the atmosphere, such as in clouds d) Water that flows down the sides of mountains

Correct answer: b) Water that fills spaces beneath the Earth's surface in soil and rocks

  1. How old can groundwater be?

a) A few hours old b) A few days old c) A few weeks old d) Thousands of years old

Correct answer: d) Thousands of years old

  1. What are aquifers?

a) Layers of soil on the Earth's surface b) Underground rivers c) Natural storage tanks for groundwater d) Water reservoirs found in deserts

Correct answer: c) Natural storage tanks for groundwater