In this fun and easy geology science experiment, we’re going to make a rock in a cup.
  • Spoon
  • Wax paper
  • Sand
  • Gravel
  • Magnifying glass
  • Sugar
  • Water
  • Paper or plastic cups


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  1. Add a spoonful of sand into a paper cup. Add a second spoonful of gravel into the same cup.
  2. Pour a teaspoon of water into another cup. Blend in 5 spoons full of sugar until eventually it’s dissolved.
  3. Slowly add the sugar water solution into the cup of sand and gravel until it is moistened. Dump off any excessive water.
  4. Allow the “rock” to dry then with care tear the paper cup off while working over a section of wax paper.
  5. Permit the “rock” to sit undisturbed and solidify for a minimum of two days.
  6. Utilize a magnifying glass to watch your “rock” and observe any changes that may occur. Sketch an illustration of the things you observe. What type of rock have you made?


You may discover during this fun geology experiment that there are three varieties of rocks: igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary.


Every rock is formed as a result of various processes which produce different materials. Igneous rocks are formed via the cooling down of melted materials while metamorphic rocks are created when heat and pressure alter other rocks. Sedimentary rocks are comprised of bits of rocks and minerals and in some cases remains of animals and plants. All of these pieces are compacted and held together by other minerals. Some examples of sedimentary rocks are sandstone and limestone.


I hope you enjoyed this super quick tutorial and enjoyed creating your own rock in a cup to investigate and explore. These rocks are very easy to make and a lot of fun!
Pro tip: Use this activity to create some excitement around discussions or lessons regarding geology, rocks, and more!
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Happy Excavating!
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